What is Carbon and its compunds all theory in detail chemistry class x

In this chapter we will be studying about some more interesting compounds and properties also we shall be learning about carbon an element which is of immense significance to us in both its elements from and in the combined form
ACTIVITY4.1      
               THINGS MADE.   THINGS MADE
                       OF METAL  ,  OF GLASS.       ,
OTHERS
1. Make a list of ten things you have used or consumed since morning .
2. Compile this list with the lists made by your friends and then sort the items into the following table .
3. If there items which are made up of more than one material put them into both the relevant columns
  
Food ,clothes,medicines,books or many of things that you listed are all based on this versatile element carbon in addition all living structure s are carbon based the amount of carbon present in the earth's crust and in the atmosphere is quite meagre the earth's crust has only 0.02℅ carbon in the form of minerals like carbonates,Hydrogen carbonates,coal petroleum and the atmosphere has 0.03%of carbon dioxide in spite of the small amount of carbon available in nature the importance of carbon seems to be immense in this article we will be looking at the properties of carbon which leads to this anomaly
4.1 BONDING IN CARBON - THE COVALENT BOND
MOST Carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity as we see in previous article from the data on the boiling and melting points of the above compounds we can conclude that the forces of attraction between these molecules are not very strong since these compounds like acetic acid, chloroform,Ethanol,Methane are largely non conductor of electricity we can conclude that the binding in these compounds does not give rise to any ions
       Look at the items that come in the last colum I hope you will able to learn that most of them are made up of compounds of carbon can you think of a method to test this what would be the product if a compound containing carbon is burnt do you know of any test confirm this ?
In PREVIOUS ARTICLE we learnt about combining capacity of various elements and how it depends on the number of valence electrons let us now look at the electronic configuration of carbon the atomic number of carbon is 6 what would be the distribution of electrons in various sells for carbon how many valency electrons will carbon have?
       We know that the reactivity of elements is explained as their tendency to attain a completely filled outer shell that is attain Nobel gas configuration elements forming ionic compounds achieve this by either gaining or losing electrons from the outermost shell in the case of carbon it has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose electrons ---
(1)it could gain four electrons forming c4 anion but it would be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on ten electrons that is four extra electrons
(2)it could lose four electrons forming c4+ cation but it would require a large amount of energy to remove four electrons leaving behind a carbon action with six protons in its nucleus holding on to just two electrons
Carbon overcome this problems by sharing its valency electrons with other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements no just carbon but many other elements form molecules by sharing electrons in this manner the shared electrons belonged to the outer shells of both the atoms and lead to both atoms attaining the Nobel gas configuration before going on to compounds of carbon let us look at some simple molecules formed by sharing of valency electrons

           The simplest molecule formed in this manner is that of hydrogen as you have learnt earlier the atomic number of hydrogen is 1 hence hydrogen has one electron in its k shell and it require one more electron to fill the k shell so two hydrogen atoms share there electrons to form a molecule of hydrogen H2 this allows each hydrogen atom to attain the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas helium which has dots or crosses to represent valency electrons
Remain topic define in the next post

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